Saturday, July 27, 2019

Theory of Speech and thought presentation in Ulysses and The Dubliners Essay

Theory of Speech and thought presentation in Ulysses and The Dubliners by James Joyce - Essay Example Many of the formal features telling apart the modes of speech and thought presentation are similar. Their effects, however, vary and more so in the narrator’s language distance from or proximity to the ideology they seek to put across. Free Indirect Speech and Free Indirect Thought are usually put under the umbrella of Free Indirect Discourse (FID) (Zelma, 2010). Theory of speech In analyzing the theory of speech, its presentation can be categorized as follows: 1. Direct Speech In the following sentence: She said, â€Å"I will make avocado juice tomorrow.† The formal markers are as follows; There are two clauses. One being the reporting ‘She said’ and the other the reported ‘I will make avocado juice’ There are the quotation marks placed around the reported clause First and second person pronouns have been used The tense of the verb used in the reporting clause is always either in the past or historical present, for example,’ She saidâ⠂¬â„¢ or ‘She says’ Any tense can be applied in the reported clause as per the time reference of the proposition. However, the correct grammar has to be adhered to at all times. Deictic markers can be used as per the time and place reference (Zelma, 2010) 2. Indirect Speech (IS) She said she would make avocado juice the following day The formal markers that point to the transition from direct speech to indirect speech are: The reporting clause in this case is viewed as the main clause (She said), and the reported clause is seen as the dependent clause. The sign that she shows this dependency is the use of the relative pronoun ‘that’ (Zelma, 2010). There are no quotation marks placed around the reported clause The first and second person pronouns transform into third person pronouns. The tense in the reported clause is brought from the back to the front   Ã¢â‚¬Å"Close† deictic markers transform to farther markers. For example, here changes to there a nd tomorrow changes to the following day. Verbs of movement that imply â€Å" motion towards† (come) transform to verbs of movement that imply motion â€Å"away from† ( return, go) However, depending on the perspective, the deictics may retain their form. This is especially relevant in the case that the perspective refers to the person ‘here’. In such a case, the sentence becomes ‘She said she would make avocado juice tomorrow’ (Zelma, 2010). 3. Free Direct Speech Free Direct Speech is a type of Direct Speech which does not include either the quotation marks or reported clauses. The effect of Free Direct Speech is that the narrator appears as the intermediary. 4. Narrative Reports of Speech Acts This entails sentences that only give the impression that speech occurred without necessarily stating what was said. 5. Free Indirect Speech Thought presentation The presentation of s character’s thought is not very easy given that the thoughts of a human being can not be directly reached. However, the authors tend to make the readers believe that they can read the minds of their characters in order to enable the full understanding of characters. The author may choose from the categories of the speech presentation but despite this, the very fact that they are posing to be readers of others’

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