Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Agents and Incidents Essay
Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Agents and Incidents - Essay Example This results in a greater affected area caused by migration by affected individuals. A chemical agent is defined as a chemical substance either in solid, liquid or gaseous form, which is employed to injure, incapacitate or kill human beings or animals because of its toxicological effects (Staten). Chemical agents can be classified into various groups such as Ã¢â¬Å"blood agents, nerve agents, pulmonary or choke agents, blister agents, incapacitating agents and riot-control agentsÃ¢â¬ (Burda 253). An example of a blood agent is cyanide which is commonly used as hydrogen cyanide, or as halogen compounds. Cyanide poisoning causes dizziness, confusion, vomiting, hyperventilation and hypertension leading to coma, hypotension, convulsions, metabolic acidosis and even death. Common cyanide antidotes are sodium nitrate, sodium thiosulphate and sodium bicarbonate (Davies et al. 550). Nerve agents are chemically organophosphates such as sarin, soman, GF, tabun and VX (Burda 254). Organophosphate poisoning produces muscarinic, nicotinic and CNS symptoms. The antidotal agents used for organophosphate poisoning are atropine sulfate, glycopyrrolate and pralidoxime chloride. In March 1995, a sarin attack was made on a Tokyo subway station. Choking agents can be substances like chlorine, chloropicrin and diphosgene. These agents give rise to such symptoms as cough and dyspnea followed by pulmonary edema. Commonly used antidotes are albuterol sulfate and nebulised sodium bicarbonate. Examples of blistering or alkylating agents are nitrogen mustard, mustard gas, lewisite and distilled mustard. Blisters, eye injury, vomiting and vesiculations are typical symptoms of such toxicity. Such a poisoning is treated by using antibiotics. Popular incapacitating agents are QNB and Agent 15, which result in hallucinations, delirium and other anticholinergic symptoms. Such symptoms are reversed by using benzodiazepines and physostigmine salicylate.